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Brewer's Malt

Monday, May 08, 2006

This is an interesting article on 2 row and 6 row malt that I found at

Brewers call malt "the soul of beer" but they might also add that malt contributes mightily to the different personalities we expect from beer. It's a big subject, so this week we'll discuss barley malt only and stick to the paler varieties.

Of all the barley grown, only one-quarter or less is used for malting. The rest is used to feed animals. Barley is well-suited for malting because it has the right components for yeast nutrition, it tastes good (homebrewers already know this -- if you aren't one, then ask to try some malt next time you visit a brewpub or tour a microbrewery), and it has a solid husk (protecting it at harvest, then later aiding the brewing process).

Barley is first of all divided by how many rows of grain there are in each ear -- either six or two.

Two-row is plumper and responsible for a softer, sweeter flavor. It is regarded as higher quality and long has been the standard in the traditional brewing nations (all of Europe and Great Britain).

Six-row barley is found more often in the United States and hotter Mediterranean lands. Europeans brewers are not alone in calling it less refined, and a beer made only with six-row is more likely to taste grainy and will probably show chill-haze because of excess proteins. In moderation, it lends a firmness and husky character to beer, which some ale brewers prefer.

Six-row is less efficient (yielding less extract from a mash) but because of higher levels of diastic enzymes and protein it is better suited for mashing adjuncts, such as corn or rice, that lack those materials. Thus it was (and is) a perfect barley malt for the style (light lager, with adjuncts) beer that came to dominate the U.S. beer landscape in the 20th century.

Within two-row there are the continental and maritime varieties. The continental barleys, such as those grown in the Czech Republic, are generally sweeter, nuttier and maybe oilier. The maritime barleys of Denmark and the United Kingdom are a bit cleaner and more delicate.

Then there are winter barleys and spring barleys, sown in the fall and later winter respectively. Winter barleys tend to be huskier, spring varieties softer and sweeter.

We'll spare you the details of the different manners in which barley may be malted, and just tell you that is another important variable. Sound confusing enough?

Over much of time, brewers have used the barley grown closest to home, often even malting it themselves. It's fairly recently, and mostly in the United States, that a brewer could order malt from halfway around the world so he or she could make a true-to-style Czech pilsner (with Moravian malt) or a Belgian dubbel (with two-row Belgian pale malt made from winter barley).

A quick summary of these pale options:

- Pilsner malt (2-row) from Europe. This is the palest two-row malt available, and is used in pilsners and other lagers.

- Lager malt (2-row) from the United States. Used in lagers of all colors, as wells as ales and steam beers.

- Lager malt (6-row) from North America. Excellent to use with a high percentage of adjuncts, but generally considered inferior in taste to 2-row.

- Pale ale malt (2-row) from Europe. This malt is what British-style ales are all about (70-90% of a stout is actually pale malt; more next week). The top British and Belgian pale malts are generally considered the best you can buy, and their flavors at quite similar, imparting a maltiness without being sulfury.

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