Wednesday, April 12, 2006
An instrument for measuring the specific gravity (abbreviated as s.g.), relative to sugar content, of a liquid. The importance of s.g. rests in it's indication of proofing potential. In other words, s.g. indicates how much dissolved sugar is present for conversion to alcohol by yeast, what that proof will be, and how much sugar to add to raise the finished proof to a specific level. A hydrometer which indicates the proof of the present alcoholic content is called a "proofing hydrometer."
A tall, narrow, cylindrical vessel used to float a hydrometer in the liquid to be measured. Using this vessel requires a smaller liquid sample than using, for example, a one gallon open-mouthed jar, as hydrometers tend to be rather long and must be floated in a deep vessel.
A rich, flavorful dessert wine made from grapes frozen on the vine and then pressed them before they thaw. Because much of the water in the grapes is frozen, the resulting juice is concentrated, rich in flavor and high in sugar and acid. The resulting wines are extraordinarily sweet, yet balanced by high acidity.
To add an active, selected culture of yeast or malo-lactic bacteria to a must, juice or unfinished wine.
The product of the hydrolysis of sucrose, which is glucose and fructose. Yeast convert invert sugar more rapidly than sucrose, such as simple cane sugar, because they do not have to break the sucrose down into glucose and fructose themselves. Invert sugar can be made by dissolving two parts sugar into one part water, adding two teaspoons lemon juice per pound of sugar, bringing this almost to a boil, and holding it there for 30 minutes (NOT allowing it to boil). If not to be used immediately upon cooling, this can be poured into a sealable jar, sealed and cooled in the refrigerator. Invert sugar should NOT be used to sweeten finished wine as it will encourage refermentation.
The enzyme yeast use to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to yield an equal mixture of glucose and fructose, yielding invert sugar.
A transparent and pure form of gelatin fining agent obtained from the air bladder of certain fish, especially the sturgeon. It is considered by some to be superior to other forms of gelatin, although this is merely an opinion.
Source: Jack Keller
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